Pay close attention: “the reintroduction of predatory wolves [is linked] with a fall in over-browsing by elk … the number of berries measured in bear droppings has doubled as elk numbers have decreased, following the wolves’ return … berry shrubs have increased since elk populations declined, and as shrubs recover from over-browsing the fruit consumption of bears has increased … elk calves are an important food source for grizzly bears … [bears’] other spring food source, cutthroat trout, is also in decline.” (

Got that? Now draw it.

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